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Research Overview

We are collecting references for papers, reports, conference presentations, or abstracts that report findings relevant to FDP. Our intent is to periodically publish an annotated bibliography that tracks the development of FDP.  We are interested in research related to FDP from any field, including  forensics, genetics, law, bioethics, and the social sciences, as well as reports about FDP in the popular press (online or traditional media). If you know of a references not listed here, please let us know!  You can tell us by using the Contribute button located on any page.

Download the full bibliography.

PLoS Genetics
Digital Quantification of Human Eye Color Highlights Genetic Association of Three New Loci

Liu, Fan, Andreas Wollstein, Pirro G. Hysi, Georgina A. Ankra-Badu, Timothy D. Spector, Daniel Park, Gu Zhu, et al. "Digital Quantification of Human Eye Color Highlights Genetic Association of Three New Loci." PLoS Genetics 6, no. 5 (May 6, 2010): e1000934.

Abstract:  We measured human eye color to hue and saturation values from high-resolution, digital, full-eye photographs of several thousand Dutch Europeans. This quantitative approach, which is extremely cost-effective, portable, and time efficient, revealed that human eye color varies along more dimensions than the one represented by the blue-green-brown categories studied previously. Our work represents the first genome-wide study of quantitative human eye color. We clearly identified 3 new loci, LYST, 17q25.3, TTC3/DSCR9, in contributing to the natural and subtle eye color variation along multiple dimensions, providing new leads towards a more detailed understanding of the genetic basis of human eye color. Our quantitative prediction model explained over 50% of eye color variance, representing the highest accuracy achieved so far in genomic prediction of human complex and quantitative traits, with relevance for future forensic applications.


  Forensic Science International
Genetic identification in the 21st century--Current status and future developments

Decorte, Ronny. "Genetic identification in the 21st century--Current status and future developments." Forensic Science International In Press, Corrected Proof (n.d.).

Abstract:  In 2010, it is the 25th anniversary of the first paper describing the genetic identification of human individuals by DNA fingerprint analysis. Since then DNA analysis has become a major tool to relate biological evidence to the persons involved in a crime or to determine the biological relationship among individuals. The currently used methodology is the result of major technological changes that were partly driven by criticism on previous methodologies, and partly driven by demand especially due to mass disasters such as the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center in New York. This review will give an overview of the current methodology in genetic identification and new developments that will have a future impact on forensic identification.

  Forensic Science International: Genetics
IrisPlex: A sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information

Walsh, Susan, Fan Liu, Kaye N. Ballantyne, Mannis van Oven, Oscar Lao, and Manfred Kayser. "IrisPlex: A sensitive DNA tool for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour in the absence of ancestry information." Forensic Science International: Genetics In Press, Corrected Proof (n.d.).

Abstract: A new era of 'DNA intelligence' is arriving in forensic biology, due to the impending ability to predict externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from biological material such as those found at crime scenes. EVC prediction from forensic samples, or from body parts, is expected to help concentrate police investigations towards finding unknown individuals, at times when conventional DNA profiling fails to provide informative leads. Here we present a robust and sensitive tool, termed IrisPlex, for the accurate prediction of blue and brown eye colour from DNA in future forensic applications. We used the six currently most eye colour-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that previously revealed prevalence-adjusted prediction accuracies of over 90% for blue and brown eye colour in 6168 Dutch Europeans. The single multiplex assay, based on SNaPshot chemistry and capillary electrophoresis, both widely used in forensic laboratories, displays high levels of genotyping sensitivity with complete profiles generated from as little as 31 pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents. We also present a prediction model to correctly classify an individual's eye colour, via probability estimation solely based on DNA data, and illustrate the accuracy of the developed prediction test on 40 individuals from various geographic origins. Moreover, we obtained insights into the worldwide allele distribution of these six SNPs using the HGDP-CEPH samples of 51 populations. Eye colour prediction analyses from HGDP-CEPH samples provide evidence that the test and model presented here perform reliably without prior ancestry information, although future worldwide genotype and phenotype data shall confirm this notion. As our IrisPlex eye colour prediction test is capable of immediate implementation in forensic casework, it represents one of the first steps forward in the creation of a fully individualised EVC prediction system for future use in forensic DNA intelligence.

  Journal of Forensic Sciences
Predicting Phenotype from Genotype: Normal Pigmentation

Valenzuela, Robert K., Miquia S. Henderson, Monica H. Walsh, Nanibaa' A. Garrison, Jessica T. Kelch, Orit Cohen-Barak, Drew T. Erickson, et al. "Predicting Phenotype from Genotype: Normal Pigmentation." Journal of Forensic Sciences 55, no. 2 (March 2010): 315-322.

ABSTRACT: Genetic information in forensic studies is largely limited to CODIS data and the ability to match samples and assign them to an
individual. However, there are circumstances, in which a given DNA sample does not match anyone in the CODIS database, and no other information about the donor is available. In this study, we determined 75 SNPs in 24 genes (previously implicated in human or animal pigmentation studies) for the analysis of single- and multi-locus associations with hair, skin, and eye color in 789 individuals of various ethnic backgrounds. Using multiple linear regression modeling, five SNPs in five genes were found to account for large proportions of pigmentation variation in hair, skin, and eyes in our across-population analyses. Thus, these models may be of predictive value to determine an individual's pigmentation type from a forensic sample, independent of ethnic origin.

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Research Overview

We are collecting references for papers, reports, conference presentations, or abstracts that report findings relevant to FDP. Our intent is to periodically publish an annotated bibliography that trac ...